You already know the basics on what different kind of bee does what. The workers find pollen and turn it into, and store, honey. The drones are to mate with the queen, who's in charge of laying eggs. But there's more to what they do than that. Here, I'll make a short list about some of the things each kind of bee does to support the hive.
- Seal honey, along with pollen, in cells (the little hexagon compartments in the honeycomb) for later.
- Feed young drones (because at a young age, drones can't feed themselves).
- Groom and feed the queen, and spread her QMP (Queen Mandibular Pheromone) all around the hive to let everyone know that they still have a queen.
- Remove dead bees and larvae to prevent sickness.
- Guard and keep the entire hive in a decent temperature.
- They're to mate with the queen (which is the only job they'll ever have, since they die after mating with her) and, apparently, guard the hive.
- Mainly to lay eggs to hatch as worker or drones.
I know that the drones and queen don't really do a whole lot, but we shouldn't really make a big deal about it, since we didn't make them that way. You can learn more about what the bees do on Wikipedia and on "The Beekeeper's Bible".